Monday, December 29, 2008

Devil John Wright by J. Frederick Quillen

This is part of a chapter that was sent to me about Devil John Wright. He was my great grandfather, William Jesse Wright's brother. He is probably in the Kentucky portion of the family, one of the most well known persons in the family. Many people in Eastern Kentucky trace a connection to him. He is known as a hero to many. He was a Devil to others. Others think of him as romantic because of his many women. I have never understood that view.

Let a woman have one man outside of marriage and she is a whore. And let her have a child out of wedlock even if the union was brought about against her will and she is damaged goods. John Wright is thought of as quite a ladies man. I do not think of him as a hero or a romantic figure.

I thought John learned to be hard and to take life in the Civil War. Then I read the accounting of the death of Reuben Potter. I know the general story goes that he was in service and heard that his children were without shoes and he deserted to take care of their needs. Not quite true. He joined one day and deserted the next. I have that story in its own blog. .

John helped the coal companies to steal the mineral rights from his family and neighbors. He wanted his uncle, Sam Wright's, mineral rights and Sam refused to sell. John threatened the lives of Sam's children if he did not sell. He didn't do the killing himself. He talked a nephew into doing the work and had Joel Wright and his wife Margaret Greer killed. Sam got 25 cents for his mineral rights.

I have a lot of stories that I have picked up from interviews with family. I am sorry that the article which follows is not complete. I would love to have the rest of the chapter and the entire book. I would would love to know who J. Frederick Quillen was and if he were a descendent of Elizabeth Wright and Henry Quillen.

This is not your typical story about John Wright.

. . . . .Devil John Wright by J. Frederick Quillen .

During the turbulent time of the Federal Union’s War against the Southern States to the beginning of the 20th century, one of the wildest and most lawless areas of the civilized world was the high-mountain country along the border between Southwest Virginia and Eastern Kentucky.

The country was torn by personal squabbles, shifting alliances, and deadly feuds among individuals, families, and local governments – one day’s law enforcement officers and bounty hunters might well be the next day’s outlaws and bushwhackers. Physical confrontations, killings and murders were common occurrences.

Wise County was the worst – men such as Talt Hall and Doc Taylor rampaged across the mountains, yet they were gifted with warm eccentric, engaging personalities and, by the time they were hanged, they had evolved into folk heroes.

But the blackest heart of all the Wise County bad men apparently possessed no redeeming qualities – John Wright was a cruel and evil man, who well deserved his popular title, Devil John Wright.

John Wright was an inveterate liar and braggart. What little good that may have existed in his tortured soul was smothered by his own grandiose self-promotion and by his cruel, shameless deeds.

John Wright was born in Letcher County, Kentucky, sometime around 1842-1844. His mother was a Bates, a family which included a myriad of colorful characters. The famous giant, Captain Martin “Baby” Bates, was John Wright’s uncle.

Shortly after the Civil War began, John Wright joined the loosely-organized Confederate forces in the area and soon ended up riding with Lt.-Colonel Clarence Prentice and his 7th Battalion Confederate Calvary, a mixed bag of Virginia and Kentucky intellectuals, criminals, mountain men and misfits.

Wright claimed that he was a scout and courier for the Confederates. In later life, he was fond of relating numerous heroic adventures during his time in the service. He claimed to have been wounded several times and proudly exhibited scars on his body. He attributed his pronounced limp to an encounter with the Yankees.

It is known that John Wright was both an organizer and patron of the infamous wartime brothel at Castlewoods. After Castlewoods’ chief pimp, Sid Cook, was killed by a homeboy on leave from Confederate service, irate citizens burned the whorehouse, and John Wright fled to his parents’ home, taking one of the prostitutes with him. John’s father, however, forbade his son bringing the whore into the home, so John set her up in a nearby cabin. The kindhearted whore, Mattie, subsequently gave birth to several of his children – she was, by all accounts, a good woman and a loving mother, but she was badly mistreated by John.

John Wright’s career shifted continuously from outlaw to law officer to bounty hunter; sometimes he wore all three hats at once. A man of strong persuasion and fearsome temper, violent men gravitated toward him. He frequently formed gangs, which operated first on one side of the law, then on the other. Wright, to whom loyalty meant nothing, would “apprehend” members of his own gang if the reward was substantial. At times, Wright signed on with the hated Pinkerton Detective agency. He even worked for the Yankee coal-mining companies, strong-arming the local citizens into selling their beloved land (or mineral rights) for little or nothing.

Wright avoided fair fights and preferred “to get the drop” on his adversaries and to shoot first and ask questions later. Whether in a fair fight or foul, Wright was a crack shot. He also had a flair for the dramatic. He boasted: “I could shoot from a galloping horse – Indian style, by swinging down the opposite side of the horse holding on to the mane with one hand and firing my pistol from under the horse’s neck.”

When not killing, bushwhacking, capturing, robbing, or swindling his fellow man, John Wright’s leisure time was given over to sloth, alcoholism and the practice of cruelty. Vicious savageries were inflicted upon his several wives and whores, upon his many children, and even against his farm animals and horses.

He was overly fond of liquor and stayed drunk a good deal of the time. Wright supervised a profitable moon shining business, whose day-to-day operation of the stills and barrel houses were supervised by two of his elder sons, James and Joel. The Wrights were also known for their excellent peach and apple brandy.

In the cold winter months, John Wright spent most of each day in bed, with a mound of covers pulled over his head, occasionally rousing from his drunken stupor to spit out orders to the members of the household. And, woe to the woman or child who did not jump fast enough – it was said that you could instantly identify a member of Wright’s household by the horrendous bruises, cuts and scars upon the victim’s face and arms. It was rumored that he had beaten to death at least two of his female companions and an unknown number of his children.

John Wright was dishonest and stingy. He would hire workers to labor upon his large, prosperous farm, then refused to pay them or pay only a fraction of what he had previously agreed. He bragged that he worked from sunup to sundown; but, in later years, a son bitterly complained, “If that old devil ever hit a lick at a snake, I never seen it. He was as lazy and triflin’ as they come.”

John Wright disliked farmers and he abused common working people; he fawned over professional men – judges, doctors, lawyers, businessmen, etc. He was addicted to telling greatly inflated and exaggerated stories of his exploits to the well-to-do, and they, in turn, created a glowing legend of John Wright.

The story Wright told of the treasured pistol he constantly wore at his side is a good example of both his flights of fancy and his extreme conceit. He claimed that the legendary Frank and Jesse James, having heard of Wright’s fame, traveled to Wise County to seek his advice and friendship. The James boys supposedly presented the pistol to John Wright in appreciation for his words of wisdom and encouragement. At other times, with equal fervor, Wright claimed that he took the pistol from a Yankee laid low on the banks of the Mississippi.

Even by mountain standards, Wright went to horrible extremes in his cruelty to animals. He delighted in arranging for animals to tear each other apart – cockfighting was a favorite, but he also set dogs against dogs, dogs against bulls, and even dogs against hogs.

Wright especially loved to torture pigs and hogs. While area farmers and stockmen humanely killed swine with a shot or a quick heavy blow to the head, John Wright slicked the flesh open with a knife or hatchet and gleefully watched as the animal ran around the farm squealing in intense pain, until I finally dropped dead from loss of blood. In another barbarous amusement, he would heat an iron or poker until red hot, then ram the iron into the animal’s ….

And that is all that was sent to me from the excerpt from the book containing a chapter on John Wright. I would love to see the rest of the chapter. I would love to see the entire book. I would also like to figure out who J. Frederick Quillen was – where he fell in the Quillen family and if he were a descendent of Elizabeth Wright who married Henry Quillen. If you know more about the book or Mr. Quillen, please let me know.


  1. I just recently read the above info and I was surprised to read about the killing of Joel Wright and his wife. I had never heard this accounting. Could you please tell me where you got this information.

  2. Yes, I can. Please write to me at

  3. Karen,

    You gave information that Alma Meade Bolling, a great granddaughter of the elder Susannah Wright, identified two pictures as both being Susannah Wright. You said she was the daughter of Rhodes Meade and Lavina Houston; that Rhodes was the son of James Madison Meade and Letitia Wright; then Letitia was the daughter of Susannah Wright and Andrew Steel; this Susan being the daughter of Susan and Joel Wright.

    Andrew Steele was not the father of Susan’s daughter Letitia Wright born December 15, 1843, nor was he the father of her daughter Anna Wright, born December 1849. He only fathered her son Andrew Wright, born January 18,1853.

    And yes, all three of Susan’s children were base born.


  4. You are right, John. I had the Andrew Steel down from my earliest work when I was doing things from collections in the Whitesburg Library, but Alma told me that Susan wouldn't tell her children who their father was and that included Letitia. I just had not corrected my work and I was still bothered by the 1st Susan picture not being Sarah Waldrup as I had thought for so long. Do you know who Letitia's father is? Or who Anna's father was?

  5. I fixed the reference to Letitia's father being Andrew Steele to it being unknown. I hadn't mentioned Anna in it and I don't think I have talked about her. If you find other errors or have sources I haven't seen, please let me know.


  6. Thanks for your prompt reply. No, I did not go on any of the visits with Lois and Orville. I only met with them at Nadina's and at my mother's The only time I went with them was to the Old Bates Cemetery at Kona.

    I am concerned about the story of Joel & Margaret (Greer) Wright's deaths. The timing is just not right according to my research.

  7. I would like to post a reply to J. Frederick Quillen's statements about Mattie (Humphrey) Wright but I don't believe there is enough space in this comments area for my reply. How do I handle this.

  8. You can send your comments to me. Identify yourself and send them to me at

  9. Will you then post my comments for others to read? I feel this is the correct way to handle this.

  10. I had to go back to read what Mr. Quillen had said about Mattie. Mostly what he said was good. I wasn't thinking of her when I found his article. John met and married her. I was suprised to think he would bring her to Letcher county and have her in a whore house. Makes me wonder if Quillen mixed up the women... but I would be interested in what you know about Mattie. I still want you to identify who you are and how you know about her. Send your info to I am sure I will run across more about Mattie as I go through the Wright interviews, but I would like to know why Mr. Quillen would call her a whore. I know that it was pointed out that she was trying to lean out of the group picture because she didn't want to be in the picture with John's other women.

  11. I have no problem with identifying myself and I will do that when I send the info about Mattie to you. You have still not answered my question about posting my reply to Mr. Quillen's remarks about Mattie. I think it is only proper and fair that you post my info for others to read since you have included Mr. Quillen's info on your blog. I will also include my sources for the information.

  12. Have you decided if you will post my info about Mattie (Humphrey) Wright? I have been waiting for your answer. Let me know your decision.

  13. I have answered you. Send your info or don't. In all the info I have seen on Mattie this is the only negative thing I have ever seen on her and made me wonder if Quillen was confusing her with one of John's other women. It would really help if we knew for sure who he was to know what his perspective was. But then I have said that before, too. Do as you please.

  14. No, you did not answer my question. The question is will you post my information?

  15. I can't post what I don't have.

  16. Comments from Patty Brashears (previously anonymous)


    I appreciate your giving me the opportunity to reply to the allegations made by J. Frederick Quillen about Martha "Mattie" (Humphrey) Wright.

    To begin with Mattie (Humphrey) Wright was not a whore or a prostitute, nor for that matter came close to that description. She never lived or worked in a brothel and probably was never in Castlewoods, VA. (I say probably because there is no know evidence of her ever being there for any length of time.)

    Martha "Mattie" Humphrey was born and raised in the bluegrass, far from the mountains of Castlewoods, in Cynthiana, Harrison County, Kentucky in a log cabin much like the home of "Devil John" Wright. Her parents, Jammison & Elizabeth (Henry) Humphrey, were farmers just like John's family. Jammison, as did John, raised and sold good horses. John worked for his father-in-law in the capacity of horseman, dealer and trader, for a short period of time.

    Mattie Humphrey met John Wright when he was wounded in the Battle of Cynthiana and she and her family took care of him until he was able to travel.

    John's 1890 pension application gives a description of his war wounds:
    Gunshot would of hip, entrance just superior to acetabulam, no exit, on line as described, ball would have passed near coccyx.
    No anatomical lesions or changes except scar, which was superficial and showed little result of slough. History of weakness and
    pain in opposite hip. Shoulder scar marking entrance and exit of ball on outer aspect of arm, crossing and obliterating part of
    the attachment of the deltoid muscle. Other adjacent tissue have suffered slight loss. The bone has been touched and a
    roughened surface can be detected. Scar marking the entrance of ball on inner and middle third of humerus, the ball
    seemingly having passed toward the head of the humerus. Very slight loss of tissue about scar. No exit. Should very slightly
    stiffened. Inability to lift arm to full height from injury at insertion of deltoid. 2/18 disability rating for hip wound. 4/18 disability
    rating for shoulder wound. He was shot in the right arm and the left hip.

    After John was discharged from the Union Army in Little Rock, Arkansas on 28 August 1865, he made his way home to Letcher County where he stayed for awhile but in October 1866 he went back to Cynthiana to find Mattie. He and Mattie were married 14 October 1866 at the home of her father in Harrison County, KY. They stayed with her parents for a time but they had moved to Letcher County before 1870. Martha and John were married until her death on 12 March 1924.

    We have been able to locate a great-nephew of Mattie (Humphrey) Wright and met with him in Cynthiana in October 2008. He took us to the site of the Humphrey farm where we saw the stone foundation for the cabin and the chimney for the main room is still standing. We also saw the family cemetery where Mattie's parents are buried along with her sister and other members of the family. We were there, on her father's land, walked the grounds and took pictures.

    Sources for the above information are -
    1850 and 1860 Harrison Co., KY Census
    Certificate of Marriage for John Wright & Martha Humphrey
    Death Certificate for Mattie (Humphrey) Wright
    Will of Jammison Humphrey
    Division of Property of Jammison Humphrey
    Appraisement & Inventory and Settlement of Property of Jammison Humphrey
    Final Settlement Papers
    John W. Wright's 1890 Pension Application


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  18. i am only 13 and i have heard many stories about him. turns out im related to him!!!!

  19. After reading some of these comments, am I to wonder is any of these stories are true?

    I think it's really cool that so many people are descendants of him, it means I have a ton of relatives! I guess that's what happens when a dude has 30 some kids...

    My great great grandfather was John's son, Samuel Preston. Apparently he got shot and killed, after conceiving a child with his neighbors wife, in front of my great grandfather when he was only a child. My grandmother has so many colorful stories of her back-home relatives, I'm not sure whether to be ashamed or entertained!

  20. I have never read such a horrible story about my family til now!It is sad they are not here to tell their side.

  21. Well let me just say I am new to ALL this information!! I appreciate all the time and effort all of you have put into this!! Whether we want to believe the stories of our ancestors or not, its still great to see "Legend has it..." I have been searching for this Wright side of my family for 3 years now, and I cant believe I never came across this Blog until a few days ago!! I am the great great great granddaughter of George Wright, the first son of Samuel W. Wright and Elizabeth Adams. It appears to me that George married into the Benedict family and never took a glimpse back to his Wright family. This resulting in my current family never quite knew where we had come from. I find the stories of "Devil" John horrible and embarrassing to the whole Wright family, but it does not define who we are today. Once again I thank all of you that have shared your stories from the Wrights and I hope to meet some of you soon!!

    Heather Wright

  22. It's my humble opinion that if someone, Karen Mullins or J. Fred Quillen, could post such slanderous information about a person(s) that they should be required to also provide proof of the atrocities. Reuben Potter & his wife, Hulda Wright Potter, were my second great grandparents. Our family cannot locate ANYTHING ANYWHERE on the death of Joel'Buck' Potter. Nor can we locate any information on J. Fred Quillen, supposed author above. Nor can we locate any facts anywhere regarding everything he has accused Bad John Wright of having committed. Shame on both of you. As a member of the Potter AND Wright legacy, I demand these untrue stories be deleted from this site as well as apologies issued to our families from Karen Mullins & J. Fred Quillen.

  23. I don't apologize for the writings about Devil John that I transcribed from a published book. I only wish I had the entire book to see what else was in it. Just because you don't like what was said doesn't mean it wasn't true. I would often like to ask questions of someone who is no longer around about their information, but if they aren't around, you can't. It is just one published account about John Wright. As a member of the Potter and Wright families myself, I am always looking for more information and it isn't discarded because I don't like it. Your "demand" is denied.

  24. Hi,

    I have been looking into my family history for several years now. I found this site because I was told that a relative of mine was killed by John Wright. He apparently admits to having killed people outside of war accoding to one site I have read that is more favorable to him. I am still trying to find out if one of them was related to me regardless of the cirumstances. No one in their right mind would hold his descendants to account for his actions. In doing this research, I have learned to be humble because I have relatives who were slave owners and Union soldiers, British sympathizers and Revolutionary War heroes... or their illegitimate brothers. If you ask what side of an historical event my ancestors were on the answer is "yes". History is told by the survivors so let us not shirk from the truth or taint it with our own prejudice.